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The Diamond Sutra in Korean-English(1)

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Writer admin Date24 Mar 2006 Read6,301 Comment0

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Cho Hyun-chun?Prof.Kyungpook National Univ.

?. Introduction

I think that the definition of Buddhism is "? Don’t do a wrong deed at all! ? Do all the good deeds! ? And have pure and lucid mind! ? These are the teachings of all the seven Buddhas(? ???? ???? ?????, ? ???? ???? ?????, ? ???? ???? ?????. ? ???? ???? ?????: ????, ??? ??, 2001)". But I could not find any correct translation of the definition of Buddhism into Korean. 
I saw and heard the Diamond Sutra so many times. But I could not find any correct translation of the Diamond Sutra into Korean, nor into English. Am I arrogant? Am I too arrogant? I think I am a little arrogant. But I do not think I am too arrogant.
Generally, the Diamond Sutra is divided into 32 chapters, but I could not find any division of chapters into verses. Therefore Moovee1) and I divide each chapters into verses for convenient discussion. 03-02 means verse 2 in chapter 3. Moovee and I are translating the Diamond Sutra into Korean and into English. I will begin my discussion. (E) means the English version of Diamond Sutra of Edward Conze(1958), and (M) means the English version of Diamond Sutra of Mu Soeng(2000).

?. Main Subject
1. about verse 1 of chapter 1
01-01 One day, I saw and heard that the Buddha did at Jeta-An?thapindika’s park in Sr?vast? with 1,250 monks and a great company of Bodhisattvas as follows .

01-01 (E) Thus have I heard at one time. The Lord dwelt at Sr?vast?, in the Jeta Grove, in the garden of An?thapindika, together with a large gathering of monks, consisting of 1,250 monks, and with many Bodhisattvas, great beings.
01-01 (M) THUS HAVE I HEARD. At one time the Buddha was staying at Anathapindika’s garden in Jeta Grove in the city of Shravasti. With him was a large gathering of 1.250 monks and bodhisattva-mahasattvas.

comment 1: You can see "Thus" in Edward Conze and in Mu Soeng. But what does "Thus" mean? I think "Thus" means all of the Diamond Sutra. Therefore, I think "as follows"  is better than "thus".
comment 2: You can see "heard" in Edward Conze and in Mu Soeng. But heard?  From whom have I heard that "(E) The Lord dwelt at Sr?vast?, in the Jeta Grove, in the garden of An?thapindika, together with a large gathering of monks, consisting of 1,250 monks, and with many Bodhisattvas, great beings"?  From whom have I heard that "(M) the Buddha was staying at Anathapindika’s garden in Jeta Grove in the city of Shravasti. With him was a large gathering of 1,250 monks and bodhisattva-mahasattvas"? "Have I heard" is incorrect because "I" was one of the 1,250 monks, and "I" was there.  Therefore "I saw and heard" or "have I seen and heard" is better than "have I heard". Additionally, in English, we hear through ear. In Chinese, we hear newspaper. In Korean, we see newspaper. And in English, we see through eye. Therefore "I saw and heard" or "have I seen and heard" is better than "have I heard".
comment 3: You can see "At one time" in Edward Conze and in Mu Soeng. But You can also see "Early in the morning" at 01-02 in Edward Conze and in Mu Soeng. Therefore I think "One day" is better than "At one time".
comment 4: In Edward Conze, where have I heard?  In Mu Soeng, when and where have I heard? Therefore I strongly recommend that 01-01 must be one sentence. I think that All the Sutras in English should begin with ? When/One day, ? Who saw and heard/I saw and heard that---, ? Who did/the Buddha did, ? Where/at Jeta-An?thapindika’s park in Sr?vast?, ? with Whom/with 1,250 monks and a great company of Bodhisattvas, ? How/as follows. I think that All the Sutras in Korean should begin with ? Who did/?????, ? with Whom/1,250?? ???? ?? ????? ??, ? When/?? ?, ? Where/???? ????? ????, ? How/??? ?? ??? ??, ? Who saw and heard/?? ?? ?????.
comment 5(5W 1H of new Millenium): I recommend the ? When, ? Who saw and heard, ? Who did, ? Where, ? with Whom, ? How( ? ??, ? ???, ? ??, ? ???, ? ??? ?? ??, ? ?? ?? ????) as 5W 1H of new Millenium.  Why? 5W 1H of old Millenium(? When, ? null, ? Who did, ? Where, ? null, ? How, ? what, ? why) is incorrect because 1) what and how can not be separated, and 2) why can not be explored in scientific logic.

2. about verse 2 of chapter 1
01-02  Early in the morning, the Buddha put on his robe, took his bowl, entered the city of Sr?vast?, begged for food from door to door following his pattern, took his meal, returned to his retreat, put away his robe and bowl, washed his feet, and sat down on the seat arranged for him  in the lotus position.

01-02 (E) Early in the morning the Lord dressed, put on his cloak, took his bowl, and entered the great city of Sr?vast? to collect alms. When he had eaten and returned from his round, the Lord put away his bowl and cloak, washed his feet, and sat down on the seat arranged for him, crossing his legs, holding his body upright, and mindfully fixing his attention in front of him.
01-02 (M) Early in the morning, when the meal time came, the Buddha put on his robe and, holding his bowl, entered the great city of Shravasti where he begged for food. Having finished begging from door to door, he came back to his own seat in the garden and took his meal. When this was done, he put away his robe and bowl, washed his feet, spread his seat, and sat down, mindfully fixing his attention in front of him.

comment 6: You can see "entered the great city of Sr?vast? to collect alms." in Edward Conze, and "entered the great city of Shravasti where he begged for food. Having finished begging from door to door," in Mu Soeng. Here, ‘begging’ is a very important ceremony in Buddhism. A monk should beg only from 7 doors - from 1st door to 7th door without exception. Even though begging no food, a monk should not beg any more. And there are some more rules a monk should follow. Therefore I think "following his pattern" should be added.
comment 7: You can see "he had eaten and returned from his round" in Edward Conze and "he came back to his own seat in the garden and took his meal." in Mu Soeng. What do you think? Eat after return?  Return after eat? You can not eat after you return in India. If you would like to eat after you return, you can not eat because your food would be rotten before you eat.  You can not return after you eat in China. If you would like to return after you eat, you can not eat because it is too cold for you to eat outside. I think Edward Conze translated the Diamond Sutra into India - English and that Mu Soeng translated the Diamond Sutra into Chinese - English.
comment 8: ‘In the lotus position’ means ‘crossing his legs, holding his body upright, and fixing his eyes in front of him’

3. about verse 3 of chapter 1.
01-03  Many monks approached to the Buddha, saluted his feet with their heads, thrice walked round him clockwise, and sat down on one side.

01-03 (E) Then many monks approached to where the Lord was, saluted his feet with their heads, thrice walked round him to the right, and sat down on one side.
01-03 (M)

comment 9:  You can see "to the right" in Edward Conze. But "to the right" is unclear. Many people, even many monks, did not know the meaning. Therefore I introduced "clockwise" instead of "to the right".

4. about verse 1 of chapter 2
02-01  In the midst of the assembly, the Venerable Subhuti rose from his seat with his right shoulder uncovered, knelt upon his right knee with his palms put together, and said to the Buddha.

02-01 (E) At that time the Venerable Subhuti came to that assembly, and sat down. Then he rose from his seat, put his upper robe over one shoulder, placed his right knee on the ground, bent forth his folded hands towards the Lord, and said to the Lord
02-01 (M) Then the Venerable Subhuti, who was among the assembly, rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, set his right knee on the ground, and, respectfully folding his hands, addressed the Buddha thus.

comment 10:  You can see "rose from his seat, put his upper robe over one shoulder" in Edward Conze and "rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder" in Mu Soeng. But these are incorrect because ‘His right shoulder was already bared before he rose”. Therefore "rose from his seat with his right shoulder uncovered" is better than two others.
comment 11:  You can see "placed his right knee on the ground, bent forth his folded hands" in Edward Conze and "set his right knee on the ground, and, respectfully folding his hands" in Mu Soeng. But these are incorrect because ‘His hands were already folded before he set his right knee on the ground’. Therefore "knelt upon his right knee with his palms put together" is better than two others.

5. about verse 2-3 of chapter 2
02-02  Buddha! Wonderful! Exceedingly wonderful! The Buddha has protected and has instructed Bodhisattvas so well!
02-03  Buddha! How should a Bodhisattva abide, practice, and control his or her own mind?

02-02 (E) ‘It is wonderful O Lord, it is exceedingly wonderful, O Well-Gone, how much the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, have been helped with the greatest help by the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Fully Enlightened One. It is wonderful, O Lord, how much the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, have been favoured with the highest favour by the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Fully Enlightened One.
02-03 (E) How then, O Lord, should a son or daughter of  good family, who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle, stand, how progress, how control their thoughts?

02-02 (M) "It is wonderful, World-Honored One, that the Tathagata thinks so much of all the bodhisattvas and instructs them so well.
02-03 (M) World-Honored One, in the case of a son or daughter of a good family, who arouses the thought for the supreme awakening, how should they abide in it and how should they keep their thoughts under control?”

comment 12: You can see "a son or daughter of  good family, who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle" in Edward Conze and "a son or daughter of a good family, who arouses the thought for the supreme awakening" in  Mu Soeng.  Here, "a son or daughter of  good family" means general one in India, in China or in Korea. And The definition of Bodhisattva is one who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle or one who arouses the thought for the supreme awakening.
comment 13: Edward Conze wrote as "How…, how progress, how control …". And Mu Soeng  wrote as "how …abide,… how…keep…”.   Both used too many ‘how’s. I think one ’how’ is better than two or three ’how’s.

6. about verse 4-6 of chapter 2
02-04  Subhuti! Right, you are right. As you say, the Buddha has protected and has instructed Bodhisattvas well.
02-05  Subhuti! Listen to me. I will teach you how a Bodhisattva should abide, practice, and control his or her own mind.
02-06  Buddha! We will listen to you. We will listen to you closely.

02-04 (E) After these words the Lord said to the Venerable Subhuti: ‘Well said, well said, Subhuti! So it is, Subhuti, so it is, as you say! The Tathagata, Subhuti, has helped the Bodhisattvas, the great beings with the greatest help, and he has favoured them with the highest favour.
02-05 (E) Therefore, Subhuti, listen well, and attentively! I will teach you how those who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle should stand, how progress, how control their thoughts.’
02-06 (E) ‘So be it, O Lord’, replied the Venerable Subhuti and listened
02-04 (M) The Buddha replied, "Well said, indeed, O Subhuti! As you say, the Tathaga thinks very much of the bodhisattvas and instructs them well. 
02-05 (M) But now listen attentively and I will tell you how those who have set out on the bodhisattva path should abide in it, and how they should keep their thoughts under control."
02-06 (M) "So be it, World-Honored One. I wish to listen to you."

comment 14: I think Edward Conze and Mu Soeng both are right.  But I think Edward Conze translated the Diamond Sutra into India - English and that Mu Soeng translated the Diamond Sutra into Chinese - English.
 
7. about verse 1-2 of chapter 3
03-01  Subhuti! A Bodhisattva should keep his or her own mind as follows:
03-02 

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